Anthropology and Human Genetics

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Enard, W. (2016). The Molecular Basis of Human Brain Evolution. Current Biology Volume 20, Issue 20: pR1109–R1117.

Ziegenhain, C., Parekh, S., Vieth, B., Smets, M., Leonhardt, H., Hellmann, I., and Enard, W. (2016). Comparative analysis of single-cell RNA-sequencing methods.

Parekh, S., Ziegenhain, C., Vieth, B., Enard, W., and Hellmann, I. (2016). The impact of amplification on differential expression analyses by RNA-seq. Scientific Reports 6, Article number:25533.


Hammerschmidt, K., Schreiweis, C., Minge, C., Paabo, S., Fischer, J., and Enard, W. (2015). A humanized version of Foxp2 does not affect ultrasonic vocalization in adult mice. Genes, brain, and behavior 14, 583-590.

Enard, W. (2015). Human evolution: enhancing the brain. Curr Biol 25, R421-423.


Enard, W. (2014). Comparative genomics of brain size evolution. Frontiers in Human Neurscience 8:345. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2014.00345

Schreiweis, C., Bornschein, U., Burguiere, E., Kerimoglu, C., Schreiter, S., Dannemann, M., Goyal, S., Rea, E., French, C.A., Puliyadi, R., Groszer, M., Fisher, S.E., Mundry, R., Winter, C., Hevers, W., Paabo, S., Enard*, W., and Graybiel*, A.M. (2014). Humanized Foxp2 accelerates learning by enhancing transitions from declarative to procedural performance. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA.

Enard, W. (2014). Comparative genomics of brain size evolution. Front. Hum. Neursci. 8:345, doi:10.3389/fnhum.2014.00345.

Wunderlich, S., Kircher, M., Vieth, B., Haase, A., Merkert, S., Beier, J., Göhring, G., Glage, S., Schambach, A., Curnow, WE.C., Pääbo, S., Martin, U., and Enard, W. (2014). Primate iPS cells as tools for evolutionary analyses. Stem Cell Research,


Enard, W. (2012). Functional primate genomics-leveraging the medical potential. J Mol Med (Berl) 90, 471-480.

Clovis, Y.M., Enard, W., Marinaro, F., Huttner, W.B., and De Pietri Tonelli, D. (2012). Convergent repression of Foxp2 3'UTR by miR-9 and miR-132 in embryonic mouse neocortex: implications for radial migration of neurons. Development 139, 3332-3342,

Enard, W. (2012). Functional primate genomics--leveraging the medical potential. J Mol Med (Berl) 90, 471-480,


Enard, W. (2011). FOXP2 and the role of cortico-basal ganglia circuits in speech and language evolution. Curr Opin Neurobiol 21, 415-424,


Staubert, C., Boselt, I., Bohnekamp, J., Rompler, H., Enard, W., and Schoneberg, T. (2010). Structural and functional evolution of the trace amine-associated receptors TAAR3, TAAR4 and TAAR5 in primates. PLoS One 5, e11133,


Enard, W., et al. (2009). A humanized version of Foxp2 affects cortico-basal ganglia circuits in mice. Cell 137, 961-971.

Ptak, S.E., Enard, W., Wiebe, V., Hellmann, I., Krause, J., Lachmann, M., and Paabo, S. (2009). Linkage disequilibrium extends across putative selected sites in FOXP2. Mol Biol Evol 26, 2181-2184,

Enard, W., Gehre, S., Hammerschmidt, K., Holter, S.M., Blass, T., Somel, M., . . . Paabo, S. (2009). A humanized version of Foxp2 affects cortico-basal ganglia circuits in mice. Cell 137, 961-971,


Krause, J., Lalueza-Fox, C., Orlando, L., Enard, W., Green, R.E., Burbano, H.A., . . . Paabo, S. (2007). The derived FOXP2 variant of modern humans was shared with Neandertals. Curr Biol 17, 1908-1912,

Timpson, N., Heron, J., Smith, G.D., and Enard, W. (2007). Comment on papers by Evans et al. and Mekel-Bobrov et al. on Evidence for Positive Selection of MCPH1 and ASPM. Science 317, 1036; author reply 1036,

Prufer, K., Muetzel, B., Do, H.H., Weiss, G., Khaitovich, P., Rahm, E., . . . Enard, W. (2007). FUNC: a package for detecting significant associations between gene sets and ontological annotations. BMC Bioinformatics 8, 41,


Khaitovich, P., Enard, W., Lachmann, M., and Paabo, S. (2006a). Evolution of primate gene expression. Nat Rev Genet 7, 693-702,

Khaitovich, P., Tang, K., Franz, H., Kelso, J., Hellmann, I., Enard, W., . . . Paabo, S. (2006b). Positive selection on gene expression in the human brain. Curr Biol 16, R356-358,

Fish, J.L., Kosodo, Y., Enard, W., Paabo, S., and Huttner, W.B. (2006). Aspm specifically maintains symmetric proliferative divisions of neuroepithelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103, 10438-10443,


Khaitovich, P., Hellmann, I., Enard, W., Nowick, K., Leinweber, M., Franz, H., Weiss, G., Lachmann, M., and Paabo, S. (2005). Parallel patterns of evolution in the genomes and transcriptomes of humans and chimpanzees. Science 309, 1850-1854.

Woods, C.G., Bond, J., and Enard, W. (2005). Autosomal recessive primary microcephaly (MCPH): a review of clinical, molecular, and evolutionary findings. Am J Hum Genet 76, 717-728,

Heissig, F., Krause, J., Bryk, J., Khaitovich, P., Enard, W., and Paabo, S. (2005). Functional analysis of human and chimpanzee promoters. Genome Biol 6, R57,


Khaitovich, P., Weiss, G., Lachmann, M., Hellmann, I., Enard, W., Muetzel, B., . . . Paabo, S. (2004a). A neutral model of transcriptome evolution. PLoS Biol 2, E132,

Enard, W., Fassbender, A., Model, F., Adorjan, P., Paabo, S., and Olek, A. (2004). Differences in DNA methylation patterns between humans and chimpanzees. Curr Biol 14, R148-149,

Enard, W., and Paabo, S. (2004). Comparative primate genomics. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 5, 351-378,


Hellmann, I., Zollner, S., Enard, W., Ebersberger, I., Nickel, B., and Paabo, S. (2003a). Selection on human genes as revealed by comparisons to chimpanzee cDNA. Genome Res 13, 831-837,


Enard, W., Przeworski, M., Fisher, S.E., Lai, C.S., Wiebe, V., Kitano, T., . . . Paabo, S. (2002a). Molecular evolution of FOXP2, a gene involved in speech and language. Nature 418, 869-872,

Enard, W., Khaitovich, P., Klose, J., Zollner, S., Heissig, F., Giavalisco, P., . . . Paabo, S. (2002b). Intra- and interspecific variation in primate gene expression patterns. Science 296, 340-343,


Straube, A., Enard, W., Berner, A., Wedlich-Soldner, R., Kahmann, R., and Steinberg, G. (2001). A split motor domain in a cytoplasmic dynein. Embo J 20, 5091-5100,